Tuesday, February 28, 2006

Hubungan ED dengan Safety

Hubungan Electronic Device (ED) dengan Safety

Para ahli masih saling melemparkan pendapat dan bukti bukti yang berkaitan dengan hal ini. Bukan seperti kasus Tamara atau Zarima, Konflik ini tidak diselesaikan di pengadilan agama untuk menentukan apakah mereka sah memiliki hubungan atau sudah jatuh talak.
Yang jelas kedua ahli punya teori dan bukti empiris masing masing perihal hubungan ini. Keterkaitan keduanya tidak jauh dari istilah interferensi. Ada penelitian membuktikan bahwa pengaruh dari RF interference ini sangat kecil, namun sebagian mengatakan bahwa jika dipakai berbarengan efeknya bukan saja linier, tapi bisa jauh lebih besar. Para engineer berusaha untuk membuat selubung yang mampu meminimalisir pengaruh dari ED ke sistem pesawat. Desain pesawat baru rata rata sudah dilengkapi dengan peralatan untuk ber-internet ria, sehingga penumpang tinggal memakainya (tentu saja ada biaya tambahannya)

Anyway, diluar perdebatan teknis yg terjadi, krn dua kubu punya landasan teori dan bukti empiris masing2, menurut saya, dengan pikiran sederhana saja, karena belum ada bukti nyata bahwa itu aman, kenapa harus ambil resiko dengan nyawa saya sendiri. Kecuali kalau ingin nambah jumlah N sample dalam uji statistik hubungan Electronic device dgn safety untuk dianalisa oleh FAA:D

Berkaitan dengan penggunaan electronic device di pesawat, FAA sudah mengeluarkan aturan yang melarangnya:
The FCC and FAA ban cell phones for airborne use because its signalscould interfere with critical aircraft instruments. Radios andtelevisions are also prohibited. Laptops and other personal electronicdevices (PEDs) such as hand-held computer games and tape or CD playersare also restricted to use above 10,000 feet owing to concerns theycould interfere with aircraft instrumentation

Reportase tentang hubungan electronic device sebagai penyebab kecelakaandapat didapatkan di aviation safety reporting system (ASRS) yangberafiliasi ke NASA dan FAA.

Electronic on Board

How commonly does radio frequency (RF) interference cause safetyproblems for commercial aircraft? We have concluded, based on severaltypes of analyses, that RF interference from consumer electronics isunlikely to have figured in more than a few percent of commercial airaccidents, if any at all, during the past 10 years. There are nodocumented cases of a fatal aircraft accident caused by RF interference,although it is possible that interference has been an unrecognizedfactor in some crashes, perhaps simply by momentarily diverting apilot's attention during a critical maneuver.

A commercial airliner is a study in electronic complexity. Aircraftsystems--marker beacons, distance-measuring equipment, traffic-alert andcollision-avoidance systems, microwave-landing systems, and GlobalPositioning Systems, among many others--operate across a wide range ofradio frequencies. Likewise, a host of consumer electronicdevices--laptops, cell phones, game systems, CD players, and thelike--produce emissions that range across all of these frequencies. Inaddition to producing emissions at their nominal design frequencies,passenger electronic devices often also produce emissions at otherfrequencies due to harmonics and other mechanisms. The physicalenvironment of the aircraft further complicates matters. Aircraft cabinsare large metallic tubes that can act as resonant cavities at somefrequencies, and an aircraft's windows, which are basically openings ina conducting plane, can radiate as slot antennas.

New consumer electronic devices are required to meet RF emissionstandards set by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC). Thesestandards are intended to prevent interference with other users of theelectromagnetic spectrum. However, because of problems in testing,enforcement, and other areas, it is not clear that all new devicesconform to these standards. In addition, as devices get banged around inuse and get modified or repaired by owners or service personnel withlimited training, some of them can begin to produce emissions thatexceed their designed specifications. RF interference from consumerelectronics can affect various flight-critical aircraft electronicsystems in several ways. Radiation can pass out of the windows and enterantennas located on the outside of the aircraft. Emissions also candirectly enter electronic devices inside the aircraft or induce currentsin wiring that is connected to those devices.

Of course, aircraft systems have been designed and tested to minimizethe risks of such interference. But if emissions from passengerelectronics are great enough, these measures may be insufficient toprotect some properly operating systems. Of greater concern is thepossibility that some of an aircraft's systems may not be operating asprecisely as intended, perhaps due to aging or maintenance. In addition,devices that individually test as reliable may exhibit problems whenoperated together. RF interference with aircraft systems can ofteninvolve very subtle interactions among a number of different systemcomponents, and such interference may be difficult or impossible todetect through routine testing and preflight checkout procedures.

Safety purists might argue that airlines should simply ban the use ofall consumer electronic devices in aircraft cabins under the authoritythey already have through existing Federal Aviation Administration (FAA)regulations. The FAA specifies that, "no person may operate...anyportable electronic device on any...aircraft" unless an airline hasdetermined that use of the device "will not cause interference with thenavigation or communication system of the aircraft on which it is to beused."

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